Joint Fluid Analysis: Components and Results

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Joint Fluid Analysis helps determine the condition of the joint and diagnose joint-related disorders, such as joint inflammation, joint pain, and joint swelling. Some of the disorders may develop to permanently damage the joint. So, the results matter a lot.

 

Things you need to know before the test: in order to collect the joint fluid (synovial fluid) sample, the doctor may insert a needle into the joint space. In other words, it may sting.

The joint fluid analysis is composed of:

  • Physical characteristics: especially the color.
  • Chemical tests: glucose levels, protein levels, uric acid levels, etc.
  • Microscopic examination: to examine the presence of microbes and crystals.
  • Total cell counts: especially the amount of white blood cells and red blood cells.
  • Gram stain: to examine the presence of microbes.

Here are the normal results and possible interpretations:

For physical characteristics:

  • The normal appearance is straw colored, clear or moderately viscous.
  • Less viscous fluid suggests inflammation.
  • Cloudy one indicates the presence of microbes, white blood cells, or crystals, all of which (except a few white blood cells) a normal joint sample should not contain.
  • Reddish one reveals the presence of blood.

For chemical test:

  • Glucose:
    • A normal sample contains glucose, but in a smaller amount than in the blood.
    • So, lower than normal one comes with inflammation and infection.
  • Protein:
    • An increased level suggests bacterial infection.

For microscopic examination:

  • Normally, there are small numbers of white blood cells and red blood cells present in the joint fluid.

For total cell counts:

  • Elevated blood cells numbers occur with infections, and conditions like gout and rheumatoid arthritis.

 

Keywords: Joint Fluid Analysis; Synovial Fluid Analysis

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