Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a hormone produced by reproductive tissues, including the testicles in males and the ovaries in females. The role of AMH and the normal amount varies depending on sex and age. This test measures AMH in the blood.
- During a woman’s childbearing years, a decreased level of AMH may demonstrate a low number and quality of eggs (low ovarian reserve) with diminishing fertility. This may result in minimal or less responsiveness to IVF treatment. It can also indicate ovaries dysfunction (premature ovarian failure).
- A decreasing level and/or significant decline in AMH may signal the imminent onset of menopause. Negative to low levels of AMH are normal in a female during infancy and after menopause.
- An increased level of AMH is often seen with PCOS but is not diagnostic of this condition. Increased AMH may also indicate an increased or even excessive responsiveness to IVF and a need to tailor the procedure accordingly.
- In a male infant, absence or low levels of AMH may indicate a problem with the AMH gene that directs AMH production and may be seen with absent or dysfunctional testicles. Lack of male hormones may result in ambiguous genitalia and may cause abnormal internal reproductive structures.
- Normal levels of AMH and androgens in a male infant whose testicles have not descended indicate that they are present and functional but not physically located where they are supposed to be.
Things Must Keep in Mind
- When AMH is used as a tool to monitor an AMH-producing ovarian cancer, then a decrease in AMH indicates a response to treatment while an increase may indicate cancer recurrence.
- Lack of male hormones may result in ambiguous genitalia and may cause abnormal internal reproductive structures.
Keywords: Anti-Müllerian hormone; AMH; testicles; ovaries; IVF