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Calcium is the most abundant and one of the most important minerals in the body. This test measures the amount of calcium in the blood or urine, which reflects the amount of total and ionized calcium in the body.

The normal range of the calcium in the blood is 2.25-2.75mmol/L.

A normal total or ionized calcium result together with other normal laboratory results generally means that a person’s calcium metabolism is normal and blood levels are being appropriately regulated.

The low total calcium is caused by:

  • Low blood protein levels
  • Underactive parathyroid gland (hypoparathyroidism)
  • Inherited resistance to the effects of parathyroid hormone
  • Extreme deficiency in dietary calcium
  • Decreased levels of vitamin D
  • Magnesium deficiency
  • Increased levels of phosphorus
  • Acute inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
  • Renal failure

The high total calcium is caused by:

  • Hyperparathyroidism
  • Cancer
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Sarcoidosis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Prolonged immobilization
  • Excess vitamin D intake
  • Thiazide diuretics
  • Kidney transplant

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