Enoxaparin: Uses, Side Effects

Enoxaparin is an anticoagulant that helps prevent the formation of blood clots.

Enoxaparin is used to treat or prevent a type of blood clot called deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which can lead to blood clots in the lungs (pulmonary embolism). A DVT can occur after certain types of surgery, or in people who are bed-ridden due to a prolonged illness.

Enoxaparin is also used to prevent blood vessel complications in people with certain types of angina (chest pain) or heart attack.

Enoxaparin may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

Before taking this medicine

You should not use enoxaparin if you are allergic to enoxaparin, heparin, benzyl alcohol, or pork products, or if you have:

  • active or uncontrolled bleeding; or
  • if you had decreased platelets in your blood after testing positive for a certain antibody while using enoxaparin within the past 100 days.

Enoxaparin may cause you to bleed more easily, especially if you have:

  • a bleeding disorder that is inherited or caused by disease;
  • hemorrhagic stroke;
  • an infection of the lining of your heart (also called bacterial endocarditis);
  • stomach or intestinal bleeding or ulcer; or
  • recent brain, spine, or eye surgery.

Enoxaparin can cause a very serious blood clot around your spinal cord if you undergo a spinal tap or receive spinal anesthesia (epidural). This type of blood clot could cause long-term or permanent paralysis, and may be more likely to occur if:

  • you have a spinal cord injury;
  • you have a spinal catheter in place or if a catheter has been recently removed;
  • you have a history of spinal surgery or repeated spinal taps;
  • you have recently had a spinal tap or epidural anesthesia;
  • you take aspirin or an NSAID (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug)–ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), naproxen (Aleve), diclofenac, indomethacin, meloxicam, and others; or
  • you are using a blood thinner (warfarin, Coumadin) or other medicines to treat or prevent blood clots.

Tell your doctor if you have ever had:

  • a bleeding disorder such as hemophilia;
  • kidney or liver disease;
  • uncontrolled high blood pressure;
  • eye problems caused by diabetes;
  • a stomach ulcer; or
  • low blood platelets after receiving heparin.

Tell your doctor if you are pregnant. If you use enoxaparin during pregnancy, make sure your doctor knows if you have a mechanical heart valve.

It may not be safe to breast-feed while using this medicine. Ask your doctor about any risk.

Side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; itching or burning skin; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Also seek emergency medical attention if you have symptoms of a spinal blood clot: back pain, numbness or muscle weakness in your lower body, or loss of bladder or bowel control.

Call your doctor at once if you have:

  • unusual bleeding, or any bleeding that will not stop;
  • easy bruising, purple or red spots under your skin;
  • nosebleeds, bleeding gums;
  • abnormal vaginal bleeding, blood in your urine or stools;
  • coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds;
  • signs of bleeding in the brain–sudden weakness (especially on one side of the body), sudden severe headache, problems with speech or vision; or
  • low red blood cells (anemia)–pale skin, unusual tiredness, feeling light-headed or short of breath, cold hands and feet.

Common side effects may include:

  • nausea, diarrhea;
  • anemia;
  • confusion; or
  • pain, bruising, redness, or irritation where the medicine was injected.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

What other drugs will affect enoxaparin?

Tell your doctor about all your other medicines, especially other medicines to treat or prevent blood clots, such as:

  • abciximab, anagrelide, cilostazol, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, eptifibatide, ticlopidine, tirofiban;
  • alteplase, reteplase, tenecteplase, urokinase;
  • apixaban, argatroban, bivalirudin, dabigatran, desirudin, fondaparinux, lepirudin, rivaroxaban, tinzaparin; or
  • heparin.

This list is not complete. Other drugs may affect enoxaparin, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Not all possible drug interactions are listed here.


Keyword: enoxaparin.

* The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.