Erosive and Non-Erosive Gastritis

Gastritis is a general term for inflammation of the lining of the stomach. Gastritis may produce bleeding, ulceration, and erosion of the lining, causing symptoms including upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, heartburn, and sometimes even bleeding.

Acute gastritis may be caused by an infection, a toxic substance, aspirin and similar drugs, a food allergen, severe stress, surgery, kidney or liver failure, and other serious conditions. In acute gastritis, symptoms come all of a sudden.

Chronic gastritis often results from alcohol abuse or long-term use of aspirin or another non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs used to treat arthritis and other painful conditions. Sometimes it is linked to an underlying disorder, such as Crohn’s disease (in which the large and small intestines become inflamed and ulcerated).

Infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) can cause gastritis. H. pylori is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is the main cause of peptic ulcers, and it can also cause gastritis and stomach cancer.

About 30 to 40 percent of people in the United States get an H. pylori infection. Most people get it as a child. H. pylori usually does not cause symptoms. But it can break down the inner protective coating in some people’s stomachs and cause inflammation. This can lead to gastritis or a peptic ulcer.

Researchers aren’t sure how H. pylori spreads. They think that it may spread by unclean food and water, or through contact with an infected person’s saliva and other body fluids.

In hypertrophic gastritis, a rare disorder, the mucosal folds and the stomach lining become enlarged and thickened.

Erosive gastritis

Erosive gastritis is gastric mucosal erosion caused by damage to mucosal defenses, invovling both inflammation and wearing away of the stomach lining. Erosive gastritis is more severe than nonerosive gastritis. It is typically acute, manifesting with bleeding, but may be subacute or chronic with few or no symptoms. Diagnosis is by endoscopy. Treatment is supportive, to protect the mucosal with removal of the inciting cause, over time the mucosal will self repair.

Non-erosive gastritis

Non-erosive gastritis refers to a variety of abnormalities that are mainly the result of Helicobacter pylori infection.

Superficial gastritis

Inflammation is superficial and may involve the stomach antrum, body, or both. It is usually not accompanied by atrophy or metaplasia. Prevalence increases with age.

Deep gastritis

Deep gastritis is more likely to be symptomatic (eg, vague dyspepsia). Superficial gastritis may be present, as may partial gland atrophy and metaplasia.

Gastric atrophy

Atrophy of gastric glands may follow in gastritis, most often long-standing antral (sometimes referred to as type B) gastritis. As atrophy becomes complete, secretion of acid and pepsin diminishes and intrinsic factor may be lost, resulting in vitamin B12 malabsorption.

 

Diagnosis

A few common tests will help on the diagnosis.

  • Tests for H. Pylori – H. pylori may be detected in a blood test, in a stool test or by a breath test.
  • Endoscopy – your doctor passes a flexible tube equipped with a lens (endoscope) down your throat and into your esophagus, stomach and small intestine, looking for signs of inflammation. Your doctor may remove small tissue samples (biopsy) for laboratory examination.
  • X-ray of upper digestive system – usually called a barium swallow, you may swallow a white, metallic liquid (containing barium) that coats your digestive tract, if you have an ulcer, it shows in the X-ray images.

 

Treatment

Treatment of gastritis is mainly through medication.

  • Antibiotic medications to kill H. pylori. For H. pylori in your digestive tract, your doctor may recommend a combination of antibiotics, such as clarithromycin (Biaxin) and amoxicillin (Amoxil, Augmentin, others) or metronidazole (Flagyl), to kill the bacterium. Be sure to take the full antibiotic prescription, usually for seven to 14 days.
  • Medications that block acid production and promote healing. Proton pump inhibitors reduce acid by blocking the action of the parts of cells that produce acid. These drugs include the prescription and over-the-counter medications omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (Aciphex), esomeprazole (Nexium), dexlansoprazole (Dexilant) and pantoprazole (Protonix).Long-term use of proton pump inhibitors, particularly at high doses, may increase your risk of hip, wrist and spine fractures. Ask your doctor whether a calcium supplement may reduce this risk.
  • Medications to reduce acid production. Acid blockers — also called histamine (H-2) blockers — reduce the amount of acid released into your digestive tract, which relieves gastritis pain and encourages healing. Available by prescription or over-the-counter, acid blockers include ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepcid), cimetidine (Tagamet HB) and nizatidine (Axid AR).
  • Antacids that neutralize stomach acid. Your doctor may include an antacid in your drug regimen. Antacids neutralize existing stomach acid and can provide rapid pain relief. Side effects can include constipation or diarrhea, depending on the main ingredients.

If the gastritis is caused by the drugs that you’ve been taking, it can be relieved by stopping use of those substances.

 

Diet

Researchers have not found that eating, diet, and nutrition play a major role in causing or preventing gastritis.

Home remedy

Manuka honey

Honey has been used for medicinal purposes dating back thousands of years. Manuka honey is one of the most unique and beneficial forms in the world, especially to gastritis. Manuka honey is produced in New Zealand by bees that pollinate the Manuka bush, this special type has antibacterial potential to H. pylori.

A study of 2006 – The Antibacterial Activity of Honey on Helicobacter Pylori – had a conculsion that:

We conclude that, in vitro, some honey brands possess antibacterial activity against H. pylori and that no synergy or antagonism was observed between honey and clarithromycin or honey and amoxicillin using H. pylori as a test organism. Though no synergy or antagonism was observed between honey, amoxicillin or clarithromycin, it has been suggested that the use of honey with triple therapy regimen may help shorten the time required to eliminate H. pylori from stomach lining of patients with gastritis or duodenal ulcer caused by H. pylori infection.

The study proves the antibacterial activity of manuka honey against H. pylori.

If you want to shop manuka honey, you’ll need to understand its grading system. The grading called UMF value shows the purity and quality. These include: the key markers of Leptosperin, DHA and Methylglyoxal. Methylglyoxal, or sometimes called MGO, is the substance that acts against the H.pylori.

To protect your stomach against H. pylori, make sure you get manuka honey at least UMF 15+.

Mastic gum

Mastic is a resin obtained from the mastic tree. In pharmacies and nature shops, it is called Arabic gum and Yemen gum. An article from 2005 reports that mastic gum can be used to relieve abdominal discomfort, pain, and inflammation. A small 2010 study found that mastic gum may kill off H. pylori bacteria. Mastic gum may also relieve stomach ulcer.
This resin contains antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, where the benefits potentially come from.
Especially, H. pylori might be resistant to certain antibiotics nowadays, mastic gum is still useful in this case.
You can get supplements made of mastic gum from vitamin shops.
* The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.