Free light chains - Normal Range

Free light chains (kappa, lambda, kappa/lambda ratio)

They are small protein chains produced by plasma cells, a type of white blood cell that makes large amounts
of a specific antibody that fights bacteria and viruses. Light chains combine with other, longer protein
chains, known as heavy chains, to form immunoglobulins (antibodies that play an important role in
fighting infections). Scientists don’t know why, but plasma cells produce more light chains than are
needed to create immunoglobulins, and these extra light chains end up in your blood on their own as
“free” light chains.

There are 2 types of light chains, known as kappa and lambda—and each plasma cell produces only
1 type. The amount of free light chains in your blood, and the ratio of the 2 types, can help to show the
activity of myeloma cell growth and can be used to help diagnose MM.

Normal range of serum kappa is 3.3-19.4 mg/L.
Normal range of serum lambda 5.71-26.3 mg/L.
Normal range of serum Kappa/lambda, free 0.26-1.65.
Normal range of Kappa/lambda free (renal impairment) is 0.37-3.1.
Normal range of β2-Microglobulin (B2M) <2.7 mg/L.

* The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.