Hemoglobinopathy Test - Normal Range

Hemoglobinopathy is an inherited blood disorder. A person with hemoglobinopathy has either an abnormal form of hemoglobin (variant) or decreased production of hemoglobin (thalassemia).

Hemoglobinopathy evaluation is a group of tests that determines the presence and the amount of abnormal forms of hemoglobin. Through the evaluation, hemoglobin disorder can be screened and/or diagnosed.

Interpretations of the Results:

For adults, percentages of normal hemoglobin include:

  • Hemoglobin A1(HB A1): about 95%-98%
  • Hemoglobin A2 (Hb A2): about 2%-3%
  • Hemoglobin F (Hb F): 2% or less

Most common abnormal forms of hemoglobin detected and measured include:

  • Hemoglobin S (Hb S, sickle cell disease or trait)
  • Hemoglobin C (Hb C)
  • Hemoglobin E (Hb E)

Less common forms include:

  • Hemoglobin F (Hb F): Hb F may be elevated in several disorders, such as beta thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.
  • Hemoglobin H (Hb H)
  • Hemoglobin Barts

Other types that may be identified include:

  • Hemoglobin D
  • Hemoglobin G
  • Hemoglobin J
  • Hemoglobin M
  • Hemoglobin Constant Spring

Examples of Results

Results Seen Condition Genes
Slightly decreased Hb A
Moderate amount Hb S (about 40%)
Sickle cell trait One gene copy for Hb S (heterozygous)
Majority Hb S
Increased Hb F (up to 10%)
No Hb A
Sickle cell disease Two gene copies for Hb S (homozygous)
Majority Hb C
No Hb A
Hemoglobin C disease Two gene copies for Hb C (homozygous)
Majority Hb A
Some Hb H
Hemoglobin H disease (alpha thalassemia) Three out of four alpha genes are mutated (deleted)
Majority Hb F
Little or no Hb A
Beta thalassemia major Both beta genes are mutated
Majority Hb A
Slightly Increased Hb A2 (4-8%)
Hb F may be slightly increased
Beta thalassemia minor One beta gene is mutated, causing slight decrease in beta globin chain

Keywords: hemoglobinopathy; hemoglobin; thalassemia; sickle cell

* The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.