Nerve Chart - nerve roots, innervation, symptoms

The spinal cord can be divided into segments according to the nerve roots that branch off of it. Nerves along the cord consists of:

  • 8 cervical nerves (C1 – C8)
  • 12 thoracic nerves (T1 – T12)
  • 5 lumbar nerves (L1 – L5)
  • 5 sacral nerves
  • 1 coccygeal nerve

Nerve root C1-C4

Innervation: intracranial blood vessels – eyes, lacrimal gland, parotid gland, scalp, base of skull, neck muscles, diaphragm

Nerve root C5-C8

Innervation: neck muscles, shoulders, elbows, arms, wrists, hands, fingers, esophagus, heart, lung, chest

C1-C8 Possible symptoms: headaches, migraine, dizziness, sinus problems, allergies, head colds, fatigue, vision problems, runny nose, sore throats, stiff neck, cough, croup, arm pain, hand and finger numbness or tingling, asthma, heart conditions, high blood pressure

Nerve root T1-T4

Innervation: arms, esophagus, heart, lungs, chest, larynx, trachea

Nerve root T5-T10

Innervation: gallbladder, liver, diaphragm, stomach, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, appendix, adrenals

Nerve root T11

Innervation: small intestines, colon, uterus

Nerve root T12

Innervation: uterus, colon, buttocks

T1-T12 Possible symptoms: wrist, hand and finger numbness or pain, middle back pain, congestion, difficulty breathing, asthma, high blood pressure, heart conditions, bronchitis, pneumonia, gallbladder conditions, jaundice, liver conditions, stomach problems, ulcers, gastritis, kidney problems

Nerve root L1-L5

Innervation: large intestines, buttocks, groin, reproductive organs, colon, thighs, knees, legs, feet

L1-L5 Possible symptoms: constipation, colitis, diarrhea, gas pain, irritable bowel, bladder problems, menstrual problems, lower back pain, pain or numbness in legs


Innervation: buttocks, reproductive organs, bladder, prostate gland, legs, ankles, feet, toes

Possible symptoms: constipation, diarrhea, bladder problems, menstrual problems, lower back pain, pain or numbness in legs


* The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.