Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): Symptom, Treatment

Overview

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder that women produce higher-than-normal amounts of male hormones (androgens). It is common among women of reproductive age. This hormone imbalance makes them skip menstrual periods and hard to get pregnant.

PCOS may also cause hair growth on the face and body, or lead to baldness. If not treated in time, it may cause some long-term diseases such as diabetes and heart disease.

Risk Factors

The exact cause of PCOS is unknown currently. While there are some risk factors of PCOS, including:

  • Excess insulin: Excess insulin can increase androgen production and cause ovulation difficulty.
  • Inflammation: According some researches, women with POCS have a type of low-grade inflammation which stimulates polycystic ovaries to produce androgens.
  • Genes: According to some researches, PCOS usually occurs in families. This indicate certain genes may be related to PCOS.
  • Obesity
  • Excess androgen.

Symptoms

Symptoms of PCOS are various, including:

  • Irregular periods: A lack of ovulation prevents the uterine lining from shedding every month.
  • Heavy bleeding: Due to the irregular periods, the uterine lining builds up for a longer period of time, which make your bleeding heavier than normal.
  • Hair growth: Because of the high level of male hormones, over 70% of women with PCOS grow hair on their face and body, including on back, belly, and chest.
  • Weight gain.
  • Darkening of the skin.
  • Headaches.
  • Hair loss.
  • Acne or oily skin.
  • Harder to get pregnant.
  • Polycystic ovaries.

If you are obese, the symptoms of PCOS usually more severe.

Diagnosis

Doctors usually diagnose PCOS from symptoms and some exams. Symptoms may include:

  • High androgen levels.
  • Irregular menstrual cycles.
  • Cysts in the ovaries.
  • Acne, hair growth and weight gain.

Exams and tests may be needed to help diagnose PCOS, including:

  • Pelvic exam
  • Pelvic ultrasound (sonogram)
  • Blood tests

Blood tests may include:

Treatment

There is no cure for PCOS, while there are some methods and medication that can release the symptoms of PCOS.

  • Combination birth control pills or vaginal ring.
  • Progestin therapy.
  • Clomiphene (Clomid).
  • Letrozole (Femara).
  • Metformin (Glucophage, Fortamet, others).
  • Gonadotropins.
  • Spironolactone (Aldactone).
  • Eflornithine (Vaniqa).
  • Electrolysis.

Home Remedies

Some tips may be helpful to release symptoms of PCOS.

  • Lose weight.
  • Do exercise.
  • Keep low-carbohydrate diets.
  • Drink green tea and Apple Cider Vinegar.

Complications

If not treat PCOS in time, it may cause many complications, including:

  • Infertility.
  • Gestational diabetes or pregnancy-induced high blood pressure.
  • Miscarriage or premature birth.
  • Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
  • Risk of cardiovascular disease such as high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels.
  • Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes.
  • Sleep apnea.
  • Depression, anxiety and eating disorders.
  • Abnormal uterine bleeding.
  • Endometrial cancer.

Please consult your doctors for your treatments.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome; PCOS.

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: What to Eat?

Can People with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Get Pregnant?

Infertility: Risk Factor, Diagnosis, Treatment

* The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.