Urinalysis Test-Reference Standard

Urinalysis, also known as urine test, urine analysis, or UA, is conducted to diagnose or monitor conditions or diseases like kidney disorders or urinary tract infections. It is usually done in three steps: visual examination, chemical examination and microscopic examination.

In Visual Urine Examination

If your urine is near transparent or yellowish-colored, it indicates normal conditions.

If your urine is cloudy, turbid, and with strong odor, it may indicate urinary traction infection (UTI).

In Chemical Examination

The parameters that should be tested by dipstick method and their normal value are as follows:

  • Urine pH: It may range between 4.5 and 8, and the ideal value is around 6.
  • Protein: 10 mg/100 ml or 150 mg/day is normal, higher levels may present proteinuria.
  • Specific Gravity: Concentration of urine-specific gravity falling between 1.002 and 1.035 is referred to as normal. Lower than 1.002 indicates dilute urine; however higher than 1.035 indicates dehydration.
  • Glucose: The normal amount should be less than 130 mg/day, higher than which indicates diabetes mellitus.
  • Leukocyte Esterase: Negative test result indicates normal conditions, however positive test result indicates UTI and elevated production of white blood cells.

In Microscopic Urinalysis

Normal urinalysis test results are absent or present very few red blood cells, white blood cells, casts, crystals, epithelial cells, and microorganisms (bacteria and yeast).

Keywords: UA; Urinalysis; Urine Analysis; Urine Test

* The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.