What Are the Basics of Bladder Cancer?

What is bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer occurs when the cells inside your bladder grow abnormally and out of control, and then form a tumor. It can happen at any age, but the most common affected group is older adults. Besides, males are more likely to get bladder cancer than females.

What are the types of bladder cancer?

According to the location of cancer cells, cladder cancer can be classified into:

  • Urothelial carcinoma, cancer occurs in the cells that line the inside of the bladder.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma, cancer occurs in the squamous cells. This type of bladder cancer often caused by chronic irritation of the bladder.
  • Adenocarcinoma, cancer occurs in cells that make up mucus-secreting glands in the bladder.

What are the signs and symptoms of bladder cancer?

People with bladder cancer may experience following symptoms:

  • Blood in urine.
  • Painful urination.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Pelvic pain.
  • Back pain.

Many other conditions may also lead to above symptoms. If you have above symptoms, you should see your doctor and do more tests.

What causes bladder cancer?

The cause of bladder cancer is not clear, but many factors can raise the risk of bladder cancer. These risk factors include:

  • Smoking.
  • Exposure to radiation.
  • Parasitic infections.
  • Long-term exposure to chemicals.
  • Chronic irritation of the lining of the bladder.

How to diagnose bladder cancer?

In order to determine whether you have bladder cancer, your doctor may ask you to do following tests:

  • Cystoscopy.
  • Biopsy.
  • Urine cytology.
  • Imaging tests, such as computerized tomography (CT) urogram, retrograde pyelogram, or X-ray images.

If your doctor has confirmed that you have bladder cancer, you may be required to do some other tests to help determine the extent of the cancer. These tests may include:

  • CT scan.
  • Bone scan.
  • Chest X-ray.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

What’s the treatment of bladder cancer?

Treatment for bladder cancer varies from one to another. It should be chosen based on your overall health, the type of cancer, the stage of cancer and your preference. In general, the treatment options include:

  • Surgery (remove cancerous tissue).
    Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). It aims to remove bladder cancers confined to the inner layers of the bladder.
    Cystectomy. It means to remove all or part of the bladder.
    Neobladder reconstruction. It aims to create a new way for urine to leave your body after removing all of the bladder.
    Ileal conduit. It means to create a tube using a piece of your intestine.
    Continent urinary reservoir. It means to use a section of intestine to create a small reservoir to hold urine, which is located inside your body.
  • Chemotherapy (use medications to kill cancer cell).
  • Radiation therapy (use high-energy beams to destroy cancer cells).
  • Immunotherapy (signal the immune system to fight cancer cells).

Please consult medical professionals if you want to learn more about bladder cancer.

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* The Content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.